Vertical Subsurface Flow CW's: Vegetation
The wetland is planted with emergent macrophytes. The planting density is 6 to 8 plants per mē. The vegetation should be planted randomly.
A wide variety of aquatic plants have been used in wetland systems:
Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, Sparganium erectum, Scirpus lacustris, Iris pseudacorus, Carex sp., Phalaris arundinacea. Native plants should be preferred.

Role of the vegetation:
  The root system increases the surface area available to bacterial colonisation;
  Transfer of oxygen to provide an aerobic/oxidized environment by oxygen leakage from the rhizomes;
  Nutrient assimilation (N and P);
  Maintaining hydraulic pathways in the substrate;
  Plant litter provides substrate to the microorganisms;
  Accumulated litter serves as thermal insulation;
  Aesthetics of the constructed wetland.
Constructed Wetlands